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Pronoun
A Pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun or a Noun equivalent. It is of the same Number, Person and Gender as the Noun for which it stands. It saves the repetition of a Noun, when it has once been mentioned.

There are altogether seven kinds of Pronouns.

  1. Personal Pronoun.  2. Reflexive Pronoun.  3 . Demonstrative pronouns.   4. Distributive Pronouns.   5. Indefinite   Pronouns.   6. Relative Pronoun    7. Interrogative Pronoun.

Let us deal with the two kinds that are the most important.

THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS

A Personal Pronoun is so called because it stands for;-

1.  The person speaking ; as, I, We, My, Us.

2. The Person Spoken to ; as, You, Your,

3. The Person spoken of ; as, He, Her, its, Them.

The Personal Pronoun of the First Person.--- These Pronoun denote the person or persons

Besides the Personal  and the Relative Pronoun which are fully dealt with in this chapter, the other kinds of Pronoun are briefly discussed below:-

1.  A Reflexive Pronoun is formed y adding “self ” to my, your, him, her and it (as, myself, herself, itself); and “Selves” to our your and them ( as, ourselves and themselves). It cannot, by itself, be used as a Subject in a sentence. Thus it is wrong to say: Myself took him to the doctor. It should be: I myself took him to the doctor (or) I took him to the doctor myself.

It is also called an Emphatic Pronoun.

  1. A demonstrative Pronoun is used to point out the object to which it refers; (as, This is yours. These are very useful). The only four  Demontrative Pronouns are this, that.

Speaking.  The following is a table of these Pronoun:-

Number & Gender Nominative Case Possessive Case Objective Case
Singular (Masculine & Feminine)

I

My : Mine

Me

Plural (Masculine & Feminine)

We

Our : Ours

Us

The Personal Pronoun of the Second Person.- These Pronoun denote the person or persons spoken to.

The following is a table of these Pronouns:-

Number & Gender Nominative Case Possessive Case Objective Case
Singular (Masculine & Feminine)

Thou

Thy : Thine

Thee

Plural (Masculine & Feminine)

You

Your : Yours

You

  1. A Distributive Pronoun refers to persons or things, one at time; as: Each of us has won a prize. Neither of them is honest . Each is used to denote every one of a number of  number of persons or things taken singly; either to denote one or the other of the two; and neither, to denote not the one nor the other of the two.
  2. An indefinite Pronoun refers to a person (or persons) or a thing (or things) in a general way, and not to any particular person or thing (as: Some are born great. Many lost their lives. Nobody attended the meeting). Other indefinite Pronouns are all, somebody few anybody one, anyone, no one and none.

The use of one needs special attention. lt is used for people in general and is always followed by ones when another reference is made to the same person.

Thus it is wrong to say: One has to do his duty. It should be : One has to do one’s duty.

An Interrogative Pronoun is used in asking questions. (as:

Who is he?  Whose is that camera ?  The only four lnterrogative pronouns are who, whose, which and what.

The Second Person Singular Pronouns have gone out of common use. The Second Person Plural Pronouns are, therefore, used both as Singular and Plural. However, Thou, Thy  Thine and Thee are used for God.

The Personal Pronouns of the Third Person.--- These Pronouns denote the person or persons spoken of.

The following is a table of these Pronouns:-

Number Gender Nominative Case Possessive Case Objective Case

Singular

Masculine

He

His

Him

Feminine

She

Her : Hers

Her

Neuter

It

Its

It

  Common

They

Their : Theirs

Them

SOME IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT  THE USE OF PRONOUNS

Here are some important points about the use of pronouns:-

A Personal Pronoun must be of the same Number, Person and Gender as the Noun for which it

stands; as,

1. Jahanagir loved NurJahan. S he was a wise queen.

2. The girls requested their teacher to forgive them.

A Pronoun standing for a Collective noun is in the Singular Number (and Neuter Gender), where  the

collective Noun is viewed as a whole; but it is Plural, when it conveys the idea of separate individuals

comprising  the whole; as,

1. The jury gave its verdict  after a few minutes.

2. The army murdered its officers.

3. The jury were divided in their opinion.

If two or more Singular Nouns are Joined by "and," the Pronoun used for them is Plural as,

Naseem and Farhat work hard. They are admired by all.

lf two Singular Nouns referring to the same person or thing are Joined by ”and,” the Pronoun used for

them is Singular; as,

Our class-teacher and scout-master is a perfect gentleman.

The head clerk and accountant was on leave.

lf two or more Singular Nouns are preceded by "each" or “every” the Pronoun used for them is

Singular; as,

Every-teacher and every student is doing his duty.

lf two or more Singular Nouns are joined by “or,” "either...  ..Or, " or ” neither ..  …nor,” the Pronoun used for them in Singular; as,

Nikhat or Farhat was helping her mother. Either.

Nikhat or Farhat was helping her mother. Neither.

Nikhat  nor Farhat was helping her mother.

If a Pronoun refers to more than one Noun or Pronoun of different Persons, it must he of the First Person Plural, in preference to the Second; and of the Second Person Plural, in preference to the Third; as,

1. You and I have done our duty.

2. You and he have done your duty.

lf a Pronoun of different Persons occur side by side in the same sentence, we should place the Second

Person first and the First Person last; as,

You, he and I were  class-fellows.

But lf some fault is to be confessed  the first Person should be placed first; as,

I and you decided the details of the conspiracy.

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