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Noun
NOUN is the name of a person, place or thing. The word “thing,” in the connection, is used to mean anything living or dead, visible or invisible, tangible or intangible we can think of.

(A) The Kinds of Nouns
Nouns are of five kinds:-

1. Proper.
2. Common.
3. Collective.
4. Material.
5. Abstract,

The Proper Noun.
A Proper Noun is the name of some particular person, place or thing; as,

1. God.
2. The Holy Quran (a thing).
3. Muhammad Ali Jinnah (a person).
4. Lahore (a place).

lt always begins with a capital letter. And if it consists of two or more words, every one or them has a capital letter at its beginning.

The Common Noun.
A Common Noun is a name given in common to every person, place or thing of the same class or kind: as man, city, book, men, cities, books.

It begins with a capital letter only when it is placed at the very beginning ofa sentence or a line of poetry; as,

1. Cows give milk.
2. Birds fly in the air.
3. Water, water, everywhere

And not a drop to drink.

The Collective Noun.
lt denotes a group of persons or things, spoken of as one whole; as, army, committee, flock,team.

If used as a "Subject," it generally takes a Singular Verb;
as,The jury consists of twelve persons.
But when it denotes the individual members of the group, it takes a Plura Verb;
as, The jury were divided in their opinion.

lt begins with a capital letter only when it is' placed at the very beginning of a sentence.

The Material Noun.
It is the name of a matter or substance of which anything is made;
as, gold, silver, iron, steel, cotton, milk, clay, rice.

It begins with a capital letter only when it is placed at the very beginning of a sentence.

The Abstract Noun.
It is the name of some quality , state or action considered apart from the object to which it belongs; as,

Quality:- honesty truth, bravery kindness, wisdom.

State:- childhood, death, sickness, slavery health.

Action:- laughter judgment, theft, hatred.

It denotes something that has no separate existence and cannot, therefore, be perceived by the senses.

It begins with a capital letter only when it is placed at the very beginning of a sentence,

SOME IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT GENDER

The Gender of Common Nouns may Masculine, Feminine, Common or Neuter.

The Gender of Proper Nouns may be Masculine, Feminine or Neuter.

The Gender of all Collective, Material and Abstract Nouns is always Neuter.

Collective Nouns, even when they denote living beings, are considered to be of the Neuter Gender.

lnfants, children and lower animals are also considered to be of the Neuter Gender.

Objects remarkable for strength are considered to be of the Masculine Gender;

as, the sun, the summer, the winter, death.

Obiects remarkable for beauty, gentleness and gracefulness are considered to be of the Feminine Gender;

as, the moon, the earth, the spring, the ship.

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