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Conjunctions join sentences and words : you can go but I must stay. Bashir and Rashid went to school. There are two kinds of conjunctions :

(i) Coordinative so called because they join sentences of coordinate rank i.e., of equal rank :

We shall go to the bazar and buy our clothes. These sentences are independent of each other and can be written separately :

(a) We shall go to the bazar.
(b) We shall buy our clothes. Hence they are of equal rank.

The following are the principal coordinate Conjunctions :-and, but, therefore. also, hence, however, so. only or,as well as.

(ii) Subordinative, so called because they join a subordinate sentence to a principal sentence : I would die before tell a lie. I would die is a principal sentence and can stand alone. But before I tell a lie is a subordinate sentence and, depends upon the principal sentence for its meaning.

The following are the chief subordinate conjunctions that, because, as. since, last, it, though. Although.

Some conjunctions are used in pairs and are called correlatives.

The following are the most frequently used pairs :-

(i) Either---or : Either Akbar or Asghar may go.

(ii) Neither---nor : He is neither very tall nor very short.

(iii) Both---and : Both Akbar and Asghar may go.

(iv) Not only---but also : She not only admired but also loved him.

(v) No sooner---than : No sooner did he utter these words than he was stabbed.

(vi) Though---yet : Though he fell, yet he was not hurt.

(vii) So---that : I am so tired that I cannot walk.

(viii) So---as : His writing is not so good as yours.

Note 1 Notice that each member of the pair of conjunctions precedes the same part of speech :

Thus : They were ready either for peace or war. (Incorrect).

They were ready either for peace or for war (Correct).

Uses of some important Conjunctions.

(i) Since : This conjunction is always preceded by a verb either in the Present indefinite or Present Perfect and is followed by a verb in the past Indefinite : It is a month .since he came here. Four years have passed since my father died.

(ii) Unless, until, lest :

Unless means if not : Unless you work' hard, you will not succeed.

Until means up to a definite time : I shall not go until he comes.

Lest means so that not and is followed by the word should :Take care lest you should fall.

(iii) As well as : lt adds the word to another :

He as well as you is guilty.

Notice that the verb agrees with the first word.

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