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Adverb
AN ADVERB adds  something to the meaning of any part of speech except a Noun or a Pronoun.
Sometimes, an Adverb modifies an entire Assertive Sentence. In such cases, the Adverb must stand first in the sentence; as,

1. Certainly l shall help him.
2. Unfortunately the doctor came late,

(B) THE POSITION OF THE ADVERB
The Position of the Adverb. ---- The position of the Adverb in a sentence is governed by the following considerations :- .

1. An Adverb usually comes before an Adjective or another Adverb; as,

1. She was very glad to see us.
2. They fought very bravely.

There are three distinct kinds of Adverbs :- .

1.  The Simple Adverbs qualify the meanings of the words to which they are attached; as,

1. He came quickly    2. Do it well.

Here quickly qualifies came and well qualifies do. These Adverbs show Time (afterwards, again already, ago, before, etc.); Place (above, around, aside, backwards, everywhere, etc.); Degree or Quantity (almost, also, enough, little, much, too, very, etc.); Manner, Quality or State (so, certainly, slowly, well, badly, etc); Number (again, always, firstly, never, once, often, twice, etc_); Cause, (why, how, what); Effect (hence, therefore, likewise, etc.); Belief or Disbelief (yes, no, surely, not, perhaps, etc.); And Comparison (so, as, than).

2. The Relative Adverbs not only qualify any Part of Speech except a Noun or a Pronoun but also connect sentences; (as, I do not know where he lives). The chief Adverbs of this kind are: as, how then, when, where, while, why whereas, and whereby.

3. The lnterrogative  Adverbs are the same in form as the Relative Pronouns, but they are used in asking questions (as, Where did you go?) The chief Adverbs of this kind are: when, where, why whence how far and how long.

But “enough” is generally placed after the word it modifies; as,

1. He was rich enough to travel first class.
2. This house is large enough for us.

2. An Adverb is usually placed after the Verb it modifies. But, for the sake of emphasis, it may also by place a before that verb; as,

1. He came late. (“Late" modifies the Verb “came").
2. She never tells a lie. ( “Never” modifies the Verb “tells”).

Similarly, Adverbs of Time and Number (e.g. always, ever, often, seldom and sometimes) are usually placed before the Verbs the) modify (excepting the Verb ”be”); as,

1. You seldom do your duty.  2. He always played me false.

3. She is seldom late.               4. You are always in time.

3. An Adverb comes either before or after the Object, but not at all between the Transitive Verb and its Object; as,

1. l learn my lesson thoroughly
2. l thoroughly learn my lesson.

4. An Adverb may come between an Incomplete Verb an: its Complement; as,

1. He is certainly a miser            . 2. This is quite wrong.

5. An Adverb comes either before or after the Object, but not at all between the Transitive Verb and its Object; as,

1. L shall always do my duty.
2. .He has never deceived us.

6. An Adverb is placed first in a sentence (i)' to quality the whole sentence, (ii) for emphasis, or (iii) fore exclamation; as.

1. Fortunately no one was hurt. (For qualifying a whole sentence).
2. Down fell the lorry into the river. (For emphasis).
3. How old he is!    (For exclamation).

(C) SOME IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT THE USE OF ADVERB

Here are a few important points about the use of Adverbs :-

Some Adverbs, unless placed immediately before the words they modify; change the very sense of the Sentence; as,

1. He only buys pictorial magazines these days.
( “Buys” but does not “read”).

2. He buys only pictorial magazines these days.
( “Buys” no magazine that is not “pictorial").

3. He buys pictorial magazines only these days.
(Did not buy ever “before” ).

“Chiefly” and “Solely” are also Adverbs of this very kind.

Some Adverbs have two forms with different meanings and should, therefore, be used With great care; as,

One Form

The Other Form

I went direct to the Manager.

Books were given free.

The train came late.

She sat near me.

No action was taken directly  He moved freely.

amongst the guests.

We have lately come here.

I lost nearly Rs. 100.

 An Adverb is not placed between an Infinitive and its sign "to" as,

1.  l request you to kindly forgive him.   (Incorrect).
2. I request you Kindly to forgive him   (Correct).

The is used as an Adverb, when ir  precedes  a Comparative and means "by what amount” or “by that amount”: as,

The more men have, the more they desire.

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