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Articles

THE ARTICLE, properly speaking, is not a distinct part of speech. lt is merely an Adjective.  How ever, the Demonstrative Adjectives "A," “An” and “The” are usually called Articles.

 THE KIND  OF ARTICLES

Articles are of two kinds:-

1 _ Definite Articles. 2. IndeFInite Articles.

“A” and “An” are called indefinite Articles, because they only generalize a Noun; as,

A doctor leads a busy life. (A doctor = any doctor). “The” is called the Definite Article, because it points out some particular person or thing; as,

I saw the doctor. (The doctor = not any doctor but some Particular doctor).

THE USE OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLES

The Use of “A”. ---- “A” is used before a word beginning with a consonant  sound; as,

Aboy.  A horse.  A useful book.  A European. Aone-rupee note.

The Use of “An”. ---- “An” is used before a word beginning with a vowel  sound; as,

An ass.  An inkpot.  An hour.  An hotel.  An historical novel.

“A” or “An” is used :-

(i) In its original  numerical sense of “one”; as, A hundred paisa_makes a rupee.

(ii) ln the vague  sense of “a certain”; as, One morning a beggar came to my door.

(iii) In the sense of“any”; as,  I want a pen.

(iv) To make a Common Noun of a Proper Noun; as,  A Daniel came to judgement .

(C) THE USE OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLES

The Use of "The”. ----  The Definite Article “The” is an abbreviated form of “this.” "that" “these,” or “those” lt is used:-

(i)  When we speak of a particular person or thing; as,

1. Has he returned from the club?

2. Let us go the canal.

(ii) When we speak of a 'person or a thing already referred to; as,

1. The pen you want to buy is good-for-nothing.

2. I dislike the fellow.

(iii) When a Singular Noun is meant to represent  A whole class; as,

1. The dog is a faithful animal.

2, The cow gives milk.

But no Article is used 'with the Nouns “man” and "woman", when they denote (3 ) the whole class; as,

1. Man is mortal.  2. Woman is man‘s mate.

(iV) With the names of rivers, seas, oceans, gulf Groups of islands and mountain ranges ;as.

1. The Ravi, the Chenab, the Jhelum, and the Indus fall into the Arabian Sea.

2. These passengers are bound for the British Isles.

3. The Himalayas lie to the north of Bharat.

(V) Before the names of books and newspapers; as,

1. I read the Holy Quran in the morning.

2. The Nawa-i-Waqat is published from Lahore and Rawalpindi.

(Vi) Before Common Nouns which are names of things unique of their kind; as,

1. The earth revolves round the sun.

2. The moon shines in the sky.

(Vii) Before an Adjective used as a Noun; as,

1. The rich do not like the poor.

2. The lot of the blind is very miserable.

(Viii) Before a Proper Noun used as a Common Noun; as,

1. Gama was the Rustam (the strongest man) of his age.

2. He is the Nelson (the greatest naval commander) of his time.

(ix) Before Superlatives ; as,

1. Aslam is the best boy in the class.

2. The darkest cloud has a silver lining.

(x) As an Adverb before Adjectives in the Comparative Degree; as,

1. The more we get, the more we desire.

2. The sooner you come, the better.

(xi) Before words denoting  natural phenomena ; as,

The day follows the night.

(xii) Before the names of directions; as,

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

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