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Change in other words in direct and indirect speech

Some other words in the Reported Speech are also changed, as illustrated above, when a sentence is changed from the Direct into the Indirect Speech. The way in which these changes take place may well be grasped by comparing the sentences that follow:-

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
1. She said to me, “I like this book." 1. She said to methat she liked that book.
2. I said to him, “These books are mine.” 2. I said to him that those books were mine.
3. He said to her, “l live here.” 3. He said to her that he lived there.
4. I said to him, “lt is four now.” 4. I said to him that it was four then.
5. She said, “My father will come today." 5. She said that her father would come that day.
6. I said, “I will not sleep tonight.” 6. I said that I would not sleep that night.
7. He said, “Yesterday was a holiday.” 7. He said that the previous day had been a holiday.
8. She said, “I shall come tomorrow.” 8. She said that she would come the next day.
9. She said to her teacher, “Sir, it is hot." 9. She said to her teacher respectfully that it was hot.
10. “Good morning," said she to us. 10. She greeted us. (or) She wished us good morning.
11. The teacher said, “You are again late today, Arif." 11. The teacher said to Arif that he was again late that day.
12. He said, "Well, it is my turn now." 12. He said that it was his turn then.
13. She said, “All right, I shall Buy that." 13. She said that she would buy that.
14. He said, “Yes, I shall come." 14. He said that he would come.
15. She said, “No, I shall not come.” 15. She said that she would not come.

You can see that in changing a sentence from the Direct into the Indirect Speech:-

1. “This” is changed into “that” ; “these” into “those” ; “here” into “there” ; “now” into “then” ; “today” into “that day” ; “tonight” into “that night” ; “yesterday” into “the pervious day” ; “tomorrow” into “the next day"; “sir” or “madam" into “respectfully” and “Good morning” or “Good evening” into “greeted,” etc. (Examples 1-10).

2. The “Nominative of Address" comes after “said to," i.e. It becomes the Object of the Reporting Verb. (Example 11).

3. Words like, “well,” “all right," “yes” and “no” are omitted. (Examples 12-15).

lt may be noted that we have avoided the legel phrases like “replied in the affirmative” and “replied in the negative."

It may also be noted that if the Past lndetinite Tense denotes a permanentfact or a habit, it is not changed when sentence is changed from the Direct into the indirect Speech; as,

1. Direct Speech. ---- She said, “My mother prayed five times a day.

Indirect Speech. ---- She said that her mother prayed tive times a day.

2. DirectSpeech. ---- He said,“Bashir Hashmiwroteagood hand.

Indirect Speech. ---- He said that Bashir Hashmi wrote a good hand.

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