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Assertive sentences

Assertive Sentence, as explained makes a positive, negative or forcefull  statement or assertion. And when it is changed from the Direct into the indirect Speech. This may well be grasped  by comparing the sentences given below:-

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
1. I said to him, “I do my duty.” 1. I said to him that I did my duty.
2. I said to him, I am doing my duty now.” 2. I said to him that I Was doing my duty then.
3. I said to him, “I have done my duty." 3. I said to him that I had done my duty.
4. I said to him, “I have been doing my duty here." 4. I said to him that I had been doing my duty there.
5. I said to him, I did my duty, sir," 5. I said to him respectfully that I had done my duty.
6. I said to him, “I was doing my duty yesterday.” 6. I said to him that I had been doing my duty the previous day.
7. I said to him that I had done my duty.” 7. I said to him that l had done my duty.
8. I said to him, “I had been doing my duty.” 8. I said to him that I had been doing my duty.
9. I said to him, “I shall do my duty.” 9.  I said to him that I would do my duty.
10. I said to him, “You will play cricket tomorrow.” 10. I said to him that he would play cricket the next day.

You can see that in changing an Assertive Sentence from the Direct into the Indirect Speech:-

1. All Pronouns have been changed as explained on page direct and indirect speech (Examples 9-10).

2. Words like "now," "here," “sir” and “yesterday” have been changed as explaind on pages changes in other words direct and indirect .

3. The Present-indefinite Tense has been changed into the Past indefinite (Example 1); the Present Continuous, into the Past Continuous (Example 2); the Present Perfect I into the Past Perfect (Example 3); the Present Perfect Continuous into the Past Perfect Continuous (Example 4); the Past indefinite into the Past Perfect (Example 5); ` and the Past Continuous into the Past Perfect Continuous. (Example 6).

4. The Past Perfect and the Past Perfect Continuous Tenses are notchanged. (Examples 7-8).

5. “Shall” and “Will” (of any form of the Future Tense) are changed into “would” (Examples 9-1O).

It may be noted that if“this," “these," “here” and "now," etc. refer to some place, object or time that is present to the speaker at the time he orshe speaks, then these words remain unchanged; as,

1. Direct Speech. ---- She said, “This pen is mine."

Indirect Speech. ---- She said that this pen was hers.

2. Direct Speech. ---- He said, “I cannot stay here."

Indirect Speech. ---- He said that he could not stay here.

It may also be noted that in changing an Assertive Sentence from the Direct into the Indirect Speech, “said to" may, if desired, be changed into “told” ; as,

DirectSpeech. ---- l said to him, “Ido my duty "

I Indirect Speech. ---- I told him that I did my duty

lndired Asserlive Sentences.

Indirect Assertive Sentences may be changed into the Direct Speech by reversing the rules explained above; as,

1. Indirect Speech. ---- He said to me that he could not help me that day.

Direct Speech. ----He said to me, “Icannot help you today.”

2. Indirect Speech. ---- She said that she had arrived there just then.

Direct Speech. ---- She said, “I have arrived here just now.”

3. Indirect Speech. ---- I told him, “I do not require those books.”

Direct Speech. ---- I said to him, “I do not require these books."

4. Indirect Speech. ---- He said that he lived there.

Direct Speech. ----He said, “l live here."

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